Climate, Unesco, Iranian nuclear, migration: symbols of American disengagement

Ⓒ AFP/Archives – STAN HONDA – | The United States has left or threatened to leave several international agreements

Since Donald Trump took office, the United States has left or threatened to leave several international agreements under the influence of a president who advocates “America first”.

– Withdrawal

. The US mission to the UN announced Saturday that the United States was ending its participation in the Global Compact on Migration, saying that “the New York Declaration includes several provisions that are inconsistent with US immigration and security policies. of refugees and the Trump Administration’s immigration principles “.

In September 2016, the 193 members of the UN General Assembly unanimously adopted a text called the New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants, which aims to improve their international management in the future (reception, assistance to the returns …).

On the basis of this Declaration, the High Commissioner for Refugees has been mandated to propose a Global Compact on Migrants and Refugees in its annual report to the General Assembly in 2018. The Pact must be based on two axes: definition of a framework answers to the problem and program of action.

. The United States announced on October 12 that it was withdrawing from the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), accusing the institution of being “anti-Israel”. The United States will retain observer status until effective withdrawal by the end of 2018.

. On June 1, the US president announced the withdrawal of the United States from the Paris agreement, signed by 195 countries in 2015, and its intention to seek a “new global agreement” on climate change. The billionaire has called the deal “very unfair” for his country because he believes it would allow other nations to take an advantage over the US industry. Effective withdrawal will not occur until November 2020.

. Upon taking office on 20 January, Donald Trump removed Washington from the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), signed in 2015 with eleven countries in the Asia-Pacific region – but not China – accounting for 40 percent of the global economy. Instead, the US president wants to negotiate “bilateral” treaties that he says will “bring jobs and industry back to US soil.”

– Renegotiation

. Donald Trump had pledged to “tear up” the nuclear deal signed in July 2015 between Iran and the 5 + 1 group (United States, Russia, China, France, United Kingdom, Germany). On Friday, he finally only refused to “certify” Tehran’s compliance with its commitments, despite assurances from the International Atomic Energy Agency, and let Congress decide the future of the text. .

. The US president has launched new negotiations on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), a large free trade area that has united since 1994 the United States, Canada and Mexico. Donald Trump says he helped relocate millions of US industrial jobs to Mexico. It is more conciliatory with Canada, the first customer of the United States and their largest supplier of oil. If the negotiations on an “improved” version of the agreement do not reach the end of 2017, Washington will leave the Alena and negotiate bilateral agreements with its two neighbors.

. Trump calls for UN reform, denouncing “bureaucracy” and “mismanagement” while Washington is the UN’s biggest financial contributor. On Thursday, US Ambassador Nikki Haley said Washington will continue to evaluate its “level of engagement” in “all UN agencies”.

– Reviews

. Donald Trump had called the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) “obsolete” before going back on his statements, and asked the Alliance countries to increase their military budgets. In May, he had not explicitly supported “Article 5”, which provides that allies will rescue one of their own in case of external aggression.

. The US president regularly denounces the “protectionist” measures of the European Union and the trade deficit of the United States with Germany, referred to as Italy by investigations of alleged dumping in steel imports. The negotiations on the transatlantic free trade agreement between the EU and the United States (TTIP), launched in 2013, are for their part blocked against the growing disapproval of civil society and some European countries.

. The World Trade Organization is in the sights of the Trump administration. At the G20 meeting in early July in Hamburg, Germany, US Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin did not rule out renegotiating the multilateral trade agreements she is supposed to implement. In particular, WTO regulations could prevent the United States from implementing its Border Adjustment Tax project, which would benefit their exporters and penalize importers. But he divides the American administration itself, Donald Trump finding it particularly “too complicated”.

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